Known as blood pressure, it is the amount of force or pressure that is imposed on the walls of the arteries with each heart’s beat. Typically, a blood pressure measurement is shown as a fraction, with one number at the top and another at the bottom. This is because your heart contracts and the figure at the top of the chart (systolic) indicates the amount of pressure placed on the arteries. On the other hand, Diastole refers to the period of time during which the heart is actively pumping blood out towards the rest of the body. Your heart’s diastolic pressure (the number at the bottom of the chart) shows the amount of pressure it is under while it is resting between beats and filling with blood. Adults should eventually have a blood pressure that is less than or equal to 120/80 mmHg. Chronic high blood pressure (hypertension) is a medical disorder in which the blood pressure continues to increase beyond normal values. When your systolic blood pressure is 120 to 139 mmHg, and your diastolic blood pressure is 80 to 89 mmHg, you are considered to be in prehypertension. As defined by the American Heart Association, a hypertensive crisis is defined as persistently elevated systolic blood pressure of 180mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 110mmHg or higher needing emergency medical attention. If left untreated, this will almost undoubtedly result in heart failure and stroke. It is important to note that blood pressure changes in response to the needs of the body. For example, it is very normal for it to increase during physical exercise and stressful situations and to decline during sleep.
The Root of the Problem
A silent killer, a term with which hypertension is frequently referred to as such since it manifests itself in the absence of obvious signs. This is due to the fact that, although hypertension may present with modest symptoms, they are unusual and may be confused with other medical conditions. When left untreated, high blood pressure may lead to stroke, heart disease, vascular disease, aneurysms, congestive heart failure, renal failure, ophthalmic abnormalities, and other health problems in the long run.
A kind of high blood pressure that has no known cause but is considered to be connected to genetics, obesity, a poor diet, and a lack of physical activity, hypertension may be classified as either primary or essential. It may begin at any age and is most often identified via a normal medical check, which is rare. There are a variety of additional medical conditions that might cause secondary hypertension. These include renal failure, diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, and others. Secondary hypertension is often caused by an underlying condition that may be addressed, reducing the likelihood of catastrophic consequences.
Complicacies and medical conditions
It is possible for hypertension to go undetected for years, resulting in issues and diseases once the body has been sufficiently harmed. For example, atherosclerosis is a disorder in which the arteries thicken and stiffen as a consequence of chronic high blood pressure over an extended period of time. This illness is caused by plaque development along the artery walls, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart and the rest of the body. Chest discomfort and neck pain, weakness, and numbness are all possible symptoms as the heart needs to work much harder to maintain the flow of blood and oxygen in the body.
The following are some of the most often seen complications and symptoms associated with this disease:
Heart failure or a heart attack are examples of strokes.
Treatment for hypertension
It is known that high blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. As a consequence, it is vital to put in place strategies that reduce overall morbidity and death rates. The treatment objective is to maintain the blood pressure under 140/90 mmHg if at all feasible throughout therapy. The medicine prescribed depends on the underlying cause of hypertension as well as the patient’s response to therapy. Here is a list of some of the most often given medications:
Diuretics are medications that help to reduce the amount of fluid in the blood by draining out excess salt from the body.
Calcium channel blockers – By stopping calcium from entering muscle cells, calcium channel blockers help relax the blood vessels muscles.
Beta-blockers cause the heart to beat more slowly and with less power, lowering the amount of work the heart has to do.
The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) may help to lower blood pressure by preventing the production of Angiotensin II, a hormone that constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
Vasodilators – These medications function by stopping the muscles of the arteries from tightening and constricting as they normally would.
Alpha-beta blockers — These medications lower the heart rate by inhibiting nerve impulses that constrict blood vessels.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers – These medications function by inhibiting the mechanism of action of angiotensin II, hence preventing blood vessel constriction.
Physical exercise is an essential component of the treatment and prevention of high blood pressure since it helps to strengthen the heart and boost its efficacy by increasing its efficiency. Blood is pumped more efficiently and effectively by a strong and efficient heart, which lowers blood pressure and reduces stress on the arteries. Exercise also contributes to a healthy lifestyle, which is vital in the treatment of hypertension and heart disease, as well as diabetes and weight loss.
It is recommended that you start cautiously and gradually build up to a regular exercise routine. Walking is a great way to begin started with physical activity and to stay active. As a result, at least 30 minutes of vigorous exercise four to five times a week should be completed as a final objective. Exercise that is high in aerobic capacity is the most effective strategy to reduce blood pressure. Exercises that cause sudden and significant rises in blood pressure should be avoided by those who have high blood pressure. Activities that put a considerable strain on the heart and blood vessels, such as jogging or heavy weightlifting, may fall into this category of risk.
If you have any questions or want more information feel free to contact Chicago Clinical Research Institute, Inc.