Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease in which the systolic and/or diastolic pressure periodically or continuously exceeds the normal range. If the force with which the blood presses against the walls of the blood vessels is too great, they are damaged with a number of further health consequences. Hypertension is an insidious disease that usually produces no symptoms. If left untreated, it can contribute to heart attack and stroke. What are the standards for blood pressure? When are we talking about hypertension? How to lower too high pressure? Know it all in this article today.
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease in developed societies. Studies show that the prevalence of hypertension among people aged 18-79 increased from 30 to 32% within ten years, and it affects approximately 9 million people in the USA. If the observed trends persist, the number of patients with arterial hypertension will increase by half by 2035.
According to the Chicago Clinical Research Institute Inc. (CCRII), the prevalence of arterial hypertension increases with age. In people over 65, it is already more than 60 percent of cases.
What is Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure is the amount of pressure exerted by blood on blood vessels. It has different values, depending on whether we are resting or working intensively at the moment.
Blood pressure is measured using a blood pressure monitor, and the obtained values are presented in millimeters of mercury, i.e., mmHg.
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is a measure of how blood exerts pressure on blood vessels as the heart contracts. It is then the highest – in the notation of pressure, it is expressed by the first number. Diastolic blood pressure(DBP – diastolic blood pressure) is the pressure exerted when the heart relaxes when it is physiologically lowest. In the record of the measurement result, it is expressed by the second of the numbers.
What does blood pressure depend on:
- The force with which the heart pumps blood into the vessels;
- The elasticity of the blood vessel walls.
Due to the fact that the blood circulates through the blood vessels under a certain pressure, it is possible to supply the entire body with oxygen and nutrients. The key factor, however, is the value of this pressure. When the pressure is too low, the body may become hypoxic. Too high pressure leads to blood vessel damage and organ complications.
Blood Pressure – The Norm
Normal blood pressure is lower than 140/90 mmHg.
Blood pressure within the normal range is divided into:
- optimal & lt; 120 and & lt; 80 mmHg;
- normal 120–129 and / or 80–84 mmHg;
- high normal 130–139 and / or 85–89 mmHg.
Hypertension Is Divided Into:
- Grade 1 hypertension: 140–159 and / or 90–99 mmhg;
- Grade 2 hypertension: 160–179 and / or 100–109 mmhg;
- Grade 3 hypertension: ≥ 180 and / or ≥ 110 mmhg;
- Isolated systolic hypertension: ≥ 140 and <90 mmhg.
Over 90% of all cases of arterial hypertension are called primary (idiopathic) hypertension, i.e., the one in which the cause of this condition cannot be found. Interestingly, idiopathic hypertension is more and more often diagnosed in children and adolescents, and this is related to the growing obesity epidemic in these age groups.
There are a few symptoms of hypertension that can be observed easily. To know what these symptoms are, read our post about the symptoms and consequences of this ailment