COVID-19 and Diabetes: The Correlation Between and Risks for a Severe Course

COVID-19 has become part of our everyday life during these last two years. However, COVID-19 isn’t the only hazard that may affect and perturb the common day-to-day life of people. So, while most of us are only worried about getting infected with COVID, some of the world’s most renowned medics have been working on warning us about the connection and correlation of COVID-19 with other diseases like common diabetes.

Diabetes, Because of its commonness, can be overlooked as a stable disease; however, please do not get fouled, as diabetes is now considered one of the most important risk factors that leads to a severe clinical case COVID-19. But, of course, other factors are just as important as diabetes, such as old age, proinflammatory or hypercoagulable state, hyperglycemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and obesity. The thing why diabetes is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for having a severe COVID condition is because usually, the individual with diabetes also presents some of the other risk factors like old age, cardiovascular diseases, and so on.

The History of Corona Viruses and Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus refers to complex chronic diseases that affect how your body uses glucose and is characterized by glucose dysregulation, usually caused by an absolute or relative insulin deficiency.

Keep in mind that diabetes is often accompanied by obesity, hypertension, and CVD, which are some of the most common comorbidities, making it a potential risk factor for many other diseases out there.

Let’s go back to diabetes’ connection to the Coronaviruses. WHO identified the very first case of atypical pneumonia with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 back in December 2019, and from 2019 to 2022; things haven’t changed much. COVID-19’s clinical presentation is broad, and the symptoms can vary from asymptomatic to mild and symptoms of respiratory failure.

Now that we are on our goal to review one of the most common risks to a more severe clinical case of COVID-19, it’s vital to mention that even though COVID-19 weren’t in the game, diabetes patients are known to have an increased risk of infections.

This can be attributed to hyperglycemia which is causing immune dysfunction. Now here comes the connection with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome infections. The severe SARS-CoV-2 infections are causing hyper inflammation, which indirectly and negatively affects the insulin target tissues, which can be linked to hyperglycemia.

Now, what’s interesting here is that the catch may be in finding out that you are positive to COVID-19 as early as possible, that’s why it’s recommended for people with high-risk factors like the ones with diabetes to test for COVID-19 regularly, and the most crucial piece of information is that there are places where you can get free Covid-19 testing in Chicago.

A Vicious Circle of Severe COVID19 Infection and Diabetes

Let’s begin with the vicious circle of severe COVID19 infection and diabetes. A severe COVID-19 case treated with steroids can negatively impact the diabetes disease itself in terms of worsening hyperglycemia. So, a worsened hyperglycemia is caused by increased insulin resistance and reduced βcell secretory function. Furthermore, a worsened hyperglycemia can additionally affect the course of the COVID-19 infection.
Primary Risk of COVID-19 Infection in Patients With Diabetes

What favors the immune dysfunction in diabetes is the presence of a hyperglycemic environment.

Hyperglycemia, as well as the resulting glycosuria, will too increase the virulence of certain pathogens. Therefore, besides the increased infection risks, the patients with diabetes do have a higher rate of infection-related hospitalizations. However, we do have a piece of good news! It’s known that with poor glycemic control, the risk of infections further increases. Meaning that we can control it and reduce the risk ourselves.

Regarding SARS, all clinical reports worldwide show diabetes to be one of the most common comorbidities present in patients infected with COVID-19. These studies led to an assumption that diabetes patients were at a primary risk, as most of these reports would describe these patients hospitalized or in ICU, meaning they were considered patients with a severe course of COVID-19.

Furthermore, an analysis was made containing a total of 6452 subjects, and it showed that diabetes was the condition and one of the most common comorbidities associated with increased mortality, severe illness, ARDS, and disease progression in patients with COVID-19. As much they acknowledged that it’s of vital importance that the patient with diabetes do test for COVID-19 regularly and it’s important for the patients to know that there are some free Covid-19 testing in Chicago.

Chicago Clinical Research Institute Inc. working on different study programs. All studies considered relevant for this review were found by cross-referencing.